Napoleon Bonaparte

Quick Facts

Full NameNapoleon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte)
Date of BirthAugust 15, 1769
Place of BirthAjaccio, Corsica
Date of DeathMay 5, 1821
Place of DeathLongwood, Saint Helena
BurialDecember 15, 1840, Les Invalides, Paris
ParentsCarlo Maria Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino
SiblingsJoseph, Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline, Jérôme (plus five stillborn or died in infancy)
SpousesJoséphine de Beauharnais (m. 1796; ann. 1810), Marie Louise of Austria (m. 1810; sep. 1814)
Emperor of the French (1st reign)May 18, 1804 – April 6, 1814
Emperor of the French (2nd reign)March 20, 1815 – June 22, 1815
First Consul of the French RepublicDecember 13, 1799 – May 18, 1804
Military Career HighlightsDetails
Notable BattlesBattle of Toulon (1793), Battle of Marengo (1800), Battle of Austerlitz (1805), Battle of Jena–Auerstedt (1806), Battle of Friedland (1807), Battle of Wagram (1809), Battle of Borodino (1812), Battle of Leipzig (1813), Battle of Waterloo (1815)
CampaignsItalian Campaign (1796-1797), Egyptian Campaign (1798-1799), Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815)
Political and Social ReformsDetails
Modernizing ReformsBrought reforms to France and Western Europe, including legal and educational systems
Continental SystemEconomic embargo against Britain
Louisiana PurchaseSold the Louisiana Territory to the United States in 1803
First ExileIsland of Elba (May 1814 – February 1815)
Second ExileIsland of Saint Helena (after the Battle of Waterloo, until he died in 1821)
Military LegacyConsidered one of the greatest military commanders in history
Cultural ImpactControversial leader with enduring political and cultural legacy
DebatesHistorians debate his responsibility for the Napoleonic Wars and the associated casualties
EducationStudied at military academies in France with the support of the French governor Charles Louis de Marbeuf
Additional FactsDetails
Rise to PowerRapidly rose through military ranks after supporting the French Revolution and saving the French Directory
CoronationCrowned himself Emperor in 1804 to consolidate and expand his power
Escape and Hundred DaysEscaped from Elba in 1815, briefly regained power before being defeated at Waterloo
DeathDied in exile on Saint Helena in 1821

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